Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures

Overview on Implementation

Achievements made under the programme of work generally fall into the following categories.

The development of international policy guidance to assist Parties and governments in addressing incentive measures

Target 18 of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework directly relates to incentive measures, while its Target 14 relates to the assessment of the various values of biodiversity. In the context of the earlier Strategic Plan for Biodiversity for the 2011-2020 period, the Conference of the Parties has emphasized that achieving its target on incentive measures (i.e. the earlier Aichi Biodiversity Target 3) can also contribute to achieving the target on resource mobilization (Aichi Biodiversity Target 20).

The Conference of the Parties adopted milestones for implementing Aichi Biodiversity Target 3 (see Annex I of the decision) and also welcomed modalities for its effective implementation, as contained in the pertinent document.

Earlier policy guidance was developed in form on the Proposals for Design and Implementation of Incentive Measures and in the form of the Options for the Application of Tools for Valuation of Biodiversity and Biodiversity Resources and Functions. Proposals on the Application of Ways and Means to Remove or Mitigate Perverse Incentives are also available, as voluntary interim guidance.

The gathering and dissemination of technical and analytical information on incentive measures, including case studies, lessons learnt, and good practices

The Conference of the Parties decided to put emphasis on enhanced sharing of information on good practices, lessons learned, difficulties encountered, and other practical experience on its implementation, as well as assessments, studies, analyses, and capacity building. Pertinent information is available in the database on incentive measures, in form of synthesis reports, as well as in form of technical series documents.


The Secretariat is collaborating closely with a range of international partners in implementing Article 11 and subsequent guidance provided by the Conference of the Parties. Detailed information is provided in the pertinent webpages.

The OECD database on policy instruments for the environment (PINE) contains a wealth of searchable information on positive inventive measures for biodiversity.