Economics, Trade and Incentive Measures

Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 (GBO-5)

Aichi Biodiversity Target 3 on Incentive Measures: Incentives Reformed

The Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO) is a periodic report of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) that summarizes the latest data on the status and trends of biodiversity and draws conclusions relevant to the further implementation of the Convention. The fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) provides a final assessment of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as well as lessons for the development of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework and transitions needed to realize the vision agreed by the world's governments for 2050 of ‘Living in Harmony with Nature’.

Here are the main findings of GBO-5 with respect to incentive measures. The full GBO-5 report is available in six UN languages on the Secretariat’s website at the following link:

Aichi Biodiversity Targets

In 2010, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the CBD adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, which includes 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. These global targets were adopted with a deadline of 2020 and focus on different actions and outcomes needed to put the world on a path to achieve the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity.

2050 Vision for Biodiversity: "By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people".

Aichi Biodiversity Target 3: Incentives Reformed

By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.

Summary of Target achievement: Not achieved (medium confidence)

Overall, little progress has been made over the past decade in eliminating, phasing out or reforming subsidies and other incentives potentially harmful to biodiversity, and in developing positive incentives for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Relatively few countries have taken steps even to identify incentives that harm biodiversity, and harmful subsidies far outweigh positive incentives in areas such as fisheries and the control of deforestation.