The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing

ABS under the Global Biodiversity Framework


In December 2022, the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the historic Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and its associated decisions. The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework comprises four goals for achieving the 2050 vision of “living in harmony with nature” and 23 action-oriented targets to be achieved by 2030.

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework includes Goal C and Target 13 which cover access and benefit-sharing from the utilization of genetic resources, associated traditional knowledge and digital sequence information.

About Goal C and Target 13

Goal C is directly linked to Target 13, and they should be looked at closely together. Target 13 expresses the actions that are needed to reach the goal.

The scope of Goal C and Target 13 go beyond the CBD and they are to be realized in accordance with internationally agreed access and benefit-sharing instruments.

Goal C
The monetary and non-monetary benefits from the utilization of genetic resources and digital sequence information on genetic resources, and of traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, as applicable, are shared fairly and equitably, including, as appropriate with indigenous peoples and local communities, and substantially increased by 2050, while ensuring traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources is appropriately protected, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with internationally agreed access and benefit-sharing instruments.

Target 13
Take effective legal, policy, administrative and capacity-building measures at all levels, as appropriate, to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources and from digital sequence information on genetic resources, as well as traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, and facilitating appropriate access to genetic resources, and by 2030, facilitating a significant increase of the benefits shared, in accordance with applicable international access and benefit-sharing instruments.

  • SUMMARY
  • DECISIONS
  • RELATED DECISIONS
  • DOCUMENTS
  • NOTIFICATIONS
  • ABS INDICATORS
  • ABS AND NBSAPs

Developments after the adoption of the GBF

SBSTTA (October 2023)

At its 25th meeting from 15 to 19 October 2023, the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) considered document CBD/SBSTTA/25/2 on the monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework providing an overview of the work of the AHTEG on indicators, and adopted a recommendation on this matter.

Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators (2023-2024)

In order to operationalize the monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, the Conference of the Parties, in decision 15/5, established an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Indicators for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. The terms of reference for the AHTEG, outlining four main tasks, are contained in annex II of the decision.

The AHTEG has been established for the period until COP-16 and will primarily work remotely; however, two in-person meetings are anticipated. Documents for the AHTEG are accessible from the meeting webpage. The report of the third AHTEG meeting, which took place in Montreal from 3 to 6 October 2023, was made available to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) at its 25th meeting.

Developments before the adoption of the GBF

COP-MOP 4 and COP 15 (December 2022)

The COP-MOP, at its fourth meeting, considered a note by the Executive Secretary on enhancing implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the context of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. The COP-MOP adopted decision NP-4/5 in which it welcomed decision 15/4 of the Conference of the Parties adopting the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework as a flexible global framework for action by all Parties and stakeholders to reach the 2050 Vision for biodiversity and achieve the three objectives of the Convention, as well as the objective of the Nagoya Protocol. The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) is supplemented by decision 15/5 on the monitoring framework which is composed of different groups of indicators for monitoring the implementation of the GBF, including indicators related to Goal C and Target 13. More information on ABS indicators is contained in the following tab.

Meetings of the Open Ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (2019-2022)

The Open-Ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework was tasked with advancing preparations for the development of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. This process lead to the adoption of a post-2020 global biodiversity framework during the second phase of the UN Biodiversity Conference held in Montreal, Canada from 7 to 19 December 2022. Five meetings of the Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework took place between August 2019 and December 2022. The process including all documents are available on the Working Group meeting website.

Webinar on Proposed headline indicators for access and benefit-sharing: Goal C and Target 13 of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework (November 2021)

A webinar on proposed headline indicators for access and benefit-sharing: Goal C and Target 13 of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework took place on 23 November 2021 with the objective to provide examples of national data collection systems related to ABS and to reflect on potential challenges, and possible approaches and solutions, for the development of the headline indicators for ABS, which are expected to cover: (a) monetary benefits; (b) non-monetary benefits; and (c) operational and effective national ABS measures. This webinar was meant to support Parties and observers in preparing for the resumed meetings under the Convention on Biological Diversity, including the twenty-fourth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice. All presentations and documents relevant for the webinar are available on the meeting website.

Related Documents
  • Access and benefit-sharing indicators proposed in the monitoring framework for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework - CBD/WG2020/3/INF/5

Global Consultation Workshop on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in relation to Access and Benefit-sharing and the Nagoya Protocol (August 2019)

The Global Consultation on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in Relation to Access and Benefit-sharing and the Nagoya Protocol was organized in response to decision 14/34 and NP-3/15. With a financial contribution from South Africa, the Consultation was held at the United Nations Office at Nairobi on 25 August 2019, prior to the first meeting of the Open-ended Working Group on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. The report of the Workshop was made available for the second meeting of the Working Group.

COP-MOP 3 (November 2018)

At its fourteenth meeting, the Conference of the Parties adopted decision 14/34 on a comprehensive and participatory process for the preparation of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, which includes the promotion of active engagement of the focal points of the Convention and the Protocols through appropriate consultation process.

The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Nagoya Protocol adopted decision NP-3/15 on the preparation for the follow-up to the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, in which it welcomed the decision by the Conference of the Parties, invited Parties to the Protocol to participate in the process for developing the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, and encouraged Parties to undertake measures to enhance implementation of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing in the context of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

Relevant Documents

Intersessional Period 2023-2024 (COP-MOP 5 and COP 16)

  • SBSTTA Recommendation 25/1 on the Monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework - CBD/SBSTTA/REC/25/1
  • Monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework - CBD/SBSTTA/25/2
  • Report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework on its third meeting - CBD/IND/AHTEG/2023/3/2

Intersessional Period 2019-2022 (COP-MOP 4 and COP 15)

  • Enhancing implementation of the Nagoya Protocol in the context of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework - CBD/NP/MOP/4/9
  • Access and benefit-sharing indicators proposed in the monitoring framework for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework - CBD/WG2020/3/INF/5
  • Report of the Global Consultation on the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in Relation to Access and Benefit-Sharing and the Nagoya Protocol - CBD/POST2020/WS/2019/8/3

Developments related to ABS indicators

The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) is supplemented by decision 15/5 on the monitoring framework, which is composed of the following groups of indicators for monitoring the implementation of the GBF (Annex I of the decision):
  • Headline indicators
  • Binary indicators
  • Component indicators
  • Complementary indicators

In order to operationalize the monitoring framework GBF, an Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group (AHTEG) on Indicators has been established to provide technical advice on remaining and unresolved issues as identified in its terms of reference (decision 15/5, Annex II).

The following provides an overview of the different groups of indictors for ABS and the status of their development.

Headline Indicators on ABS

Headline indicators are high-level indicators, which capture the overall scope of the goals and targets of the GBF to be used for planning and tracking progress as set out in decision 15/6. They are nationally, regionally and globally relevant indicators validated by Parties. These indicators can also be used for communication purposes. The headline indicators for Goal C and Target 13 adopted in the monitoring framework for the GBF are:
  • C.1 Indicator on monetary benefits received
  • C.2 Indicator on non-monetary benefits

Currently, there is no global approach to monitoring and quantifying monetary or non-monetary benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and/or traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources. In the biennium 2023/24, the AHTEG on Indicators has been mandated to work towards operationalizing the monitoring framework, including by working with partners to guide the development of new indicators for which no methodology currently exists.

To support the AHTEG in fulfilling its mandate, and with the generous support of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Secretariat has commissioned the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures to carry out a background study on ABS indicators. The study will be made available to the SBSTTA at its 26th meeting.

Binary Indicators on ABS

Binary indicators are global level indicators collated from binary yes/no responses to be included in the national reporting template. They will provide a count of the number of countries having undertaken specified activities.

The global indicator derived from binary reporting for Goal C and Target 13 proposed in the monitoring framework for the GBF reads as follows:

  • Number of countries that have taken effective legal, policy, administrative and capacity-building measures at all levels, as appropriate, to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits.

SBSTTA at its 25th meeting considered a list of binary indictors questions and in its recommendation, requested the Executive Secretary and the AHTEG on Indicators to undertake further work on this matter for consideration by SBSTTA at its 26th meeting. The proposed list of global indicators based on binary responses in national reports, along with the questions and responses for formulating the global indicators, will be submitted for adoption by COP 16.

Component Indicators on ABS

The component indicator contained in the monitoring framework for Target 13 of the GBF is as follows:

  • Number of permits or their equivalents for genetic resources (including those related to traditional knowledge) by type of permit.

Complementary Indicators on ABS

The complementary indicators contained in the monitoring framework for Goal C and Target 13 of the GBF are as follows:
Goal C Target 13
Number of users that have provided information relevant to the utilization of genetic resources to designated checkpoints Total number of transfers of crop material from the Multilateral System of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) received in a country
Total number of internationally recognized certificates published in the ABS Clearing-House Total number of permits, or their equivalent, granted for access to genetic resources
Number of checkpoint communiqués published in the ABS Clearing-House Total number of internationally recognized certificates of compliance published in the ABS Clearing-House
Number of internationally recognized certificates of compliance for non-commercial purposes Number of countries that require prior informed consent that have published legislative, administrative or policy measures on access and benefit-sharing in the ABS Clearing-House
Integration of biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Number of countries that require prior informed consent that have published information on access and benefit sharing procedures in the ABS Clearing-House
  Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits
  Estimated percentage of monetary and non-monetary benefits directed towards conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

ABS and NBSAPs

Developments related to national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAPs)

In decision 15/6 on mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review Parties are requested to submit a revised or updated NBSAP, including national targets, by COP-16, following the guidance provided in annex I of the decision, and aligned with the goals and targets of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Parties not in a position to revise their NBSAPs by that time are requested to submit their national targets, as a standalone submission, by COP-16, in advance of submission of their full NBSAP.

The guidance provided in annex I also considers the integration and mainstreaming of ABS into NBSAPs.

In decision NP-4/5, Parties are invited, and other Governments encouraged, to make use of the approach to planning, monitoring, reporting and review under the Convention to enhance the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol and the integration of ABS in revised or updated NBSAPs.

How to report?

The Secretariat has updated the online reporting tool to provide the modality for submitting national targets, as per annex 1 of decision 15/6. The updated tool can be accessed at the following web-address: ort.cbd.int.

The tool is currently available in English and will be available in the other official languages of the United Nations in the coming months. Details to guide Parties in the use of the tool and to clarify the types of information requested in different parts of the reporting template are provided on the online reporting tool site.

More information on the reporting tool is available in notification 2023-117 dated 1 November 2023.

What to report on in an NBSAP?

Revised or updated NBSAPs following the adoption of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework should contain the following common elements in order to ensure the utility of NBSAPs in the enhanced implementation, monitoring, reporting and review mechanism, while retaining their flexibility and their principal role as national implementation vehicles:

  1. National targets addressing or contributing towards each of the goals and targets of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and ensuring close alignment where possible, taking into account the availability of resources and means of implementation.
  2. Concrete actions, policies and programmes designed to meet the national targets and contribute to the global goals and targets. The development of these actions should go hand in hand with the identification of financing and capacity gaps and the development of national finance plans, or similar instruments, as well as capacity-building and development plans.
  3. National monitoring, reviewing and assessment

In order to minimize the time and resources required to revise or update NBSAPs, the alignment of existing NBSAPs and their targets with the new framework could be assessed. This assessment should consider, according to national circumstances, elements such as
  • implementation gaps,
  • existing goals, targets and indicators,
  • the effectiveness of past actions, monitoring systems (including any data and/or knowledge systems and gaps),
  • sectoral and cross-sectoral policies, finance and other means of implementation,
  • and an assessment of how stakeholders, indigenous peoples and local communities, women and youth were involved in the revision and implementation. This exercise will allow the identification of those aspects or components of their NBSAPs that need to be revised or updated in the light of the new framework.

How to include information on ABS in the NBSAPs? And which information is relevant?

In alignment with Goal C and Target 13 of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, ABS should be integrated into your country’s national targets.

At the same time, Goal C and Target 13 provide an opportunity to evaluate your country’s status, review progress made and assess how the effectiveness of the ABS system could be improved. Each country has to determine their needs and set their national targets and policies to implement them. It could be through legal reform, capacity-building or by mobilizing additional resources.

Through a wide participatory process, the revision of NBSAPs gives the opportunity to countries, together with indigenous peoples and local communities and relevant stakeholders to take stock of ABS implementation across different instruments and envision de future of ABS for the country.

If you already have a target related to ABS, e.g. in line with the previous Aichi Biodiversity Target 16, you may wish to update or revise the target to be aligned with Goal C and Target 13 using the assessment strategy above. Revised national targets should take into account the elements of Target 13 legal, i.e. policy and administrative measures as well as capacity-building measures and in accordance with applicable international ABS instruments (more information available in the Target 13 quick guide).

Further help for consideration when setting or aligning national targets with Target 13 is available here. A more general guidance for all targes of the GBF is available here.

Policy setting as part of the NBSAP process

Policy-setting processes vary from country to country and there is no one-size-fits-all approach for revising NBSAPs. However, this help provides some tips and indication of resources that could be useful for the ABS policy setting.

Engagement of indigenous peoples and local communities and relevant stakeholders in the NBSAP revision process

The NBSAP revision process provides for an excellent opportunity for the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples and local communities, including women, to develop the ABS vision for your country and have ownership of the national target to implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. Furthermore, the engagement and participation of the different stakeholder groups such as business, the research community, women and youth are crucial for a successful implementation. If your country is also a Party to other internationally agreed ABS instruments, you may wish to involve relevant government agencies and appropriate stakeholders involved in the implementation of those treaties.

Many resources are available on successfully managing stakeholder engagement in the NBSAP revision process (see resources on the side).

Support for the development of NBSAPs

Regional NBSAP Dialogues
With generous funding from the Government of Japan, provided through the Japan Biodiversity Fund, and from the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the European Union, the Secretariat is supporting the overall organization of a series of regional or subregional dialogues in 2023 and 2024 aimed at facilitating the sharing of experiences and mutual learning related to the revision or updating of national biodiversity strategies and action plans in alignment with the Framework, including by setting and aligning national targets with the Framework. The dialogues are organized at the regional or subregional levels with the support of specific partners and donors identified for each dialogue. An overview of past and upcoming dialogues is available on the NBSAP webpage of the CBD.

NBSAP Accelerator Partnership
The NBSAP Accelerator Partnership Project is providing or facilitating access to financial and technical support, including through supporting in-country and regional facilitators to help countries identify their needs and opportunities for accelerating progress, connecting the country needs with dedicated technical or financial support through the match-making service, supporting peer-to-peer learning, and raising the profile of NBSAPs to promote nature-positive action.

Through notification 2023-124 dated 7 November 2023 and notification 2023-23 dated 12 December eligible Parties interested in receiving technical support from the Accelerator Partnership to implement their revised NBSAPs were invited to submit an expression of interest. More information is available on the following NBSAP Accelerator webpage.

GBF Early Action Support Project
Further support for the development of NBSAPs is provided through the GBF Early Action Support Project funded by the GEF. If you are the ABS National Focal Point in one of the countries participating in this project, reach out to your CBD Focal Point and national GEF Focal Point to find about the status of the project in your country.

Guidance material developed as part of the GBF Early Action Support Project is available on the project webpage under the tab "documents", including a list of selected knowledge tools and guides that support the alignment of the NBSAP to the GBF.