Ecosystem Approach

Ecosystem Approach Sourcebook - Case-Study Details

1. Project Details
Author or Responsible Organization R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
Project Title Integral use and management of Tumbes Mangroves, Peru
Date of Publication
Project Status Completed
Project Start Date
Project End Date
Countries Peru
Funding Source
2. Background to Project
Project Issue/Problem Statement The Tumbes Mangroves National Sanctuary in northern Peru had a number of environmental problems, such as changes to land property rights, the destruction of a large proportion of mangroves to install commercial shrimp ponds and the contamination of rivers and estuaries. An integrated management approach was adopted for the protected area to: (1) ensure the conservation of northern mangrove ecosystems, (2) improve the welfare of local people and (3) maintain biological diversity for the benefit of current and future generations.
Project Description In 1988,the Peruvian government established the Tumbes Mangroves National Sanctuary as a protected area. The protected area did not address the pressure on local resources, however, and a strategy for their conservation was developed in collaboration with Pro-Naturaleza (a local NGO) and WWF. Since 1995, Pro-Naturaleza has adopted an integrated management approach in the Tumbes Sanctuary to ensure mangrove forest conservation. The administration and management of the sanctuary was strengthened by the following: (1) site patrols; (2) elaboration of a master plan; (3) setting up a management committee; (4) description, monitoring and identification of sanctuary users; (5) evaluation of tourism possibilities; (6) identification and promotion of artisan micro-enterprises; (7) empowerment and environmental education of mangrove users, journalists, local authorities, teachers and children; (8) mangrove reforestation; (9) socio-economic examination including gender issues; (10) extractive activity identification; (11) environmental impact assessment of shrimp-farming; (12) publicizing of project results;(13) elaborating agreements between NGOs, local government authorities, universities and aquaculture companies; and (14) workshops on participatory planning processes.
Highlighted Aspects of Ecosystem Approach · Conservation, equitable sharing of benefits and sustainable use of the resources were simultaneously addressed. · Research activities within the Sanctuary focused on understanding ecosystem functional relationships, including the human component. · The main products or services provided by the Sanctuary area were fish, shrimp, mollusks, other animal-catch related to mangrove areas, wood, honey, water for shrimp cultivation, tourism areas and control of erosion. Beneficiaries of the area extend from the shrimp- cultivating companies to local fishing communities. Benefit sharing was poorly addressed. · There is no explicit mention of adaptive management, although elements such as monitoring and evaluation were incorporated in the planning process. · The appropriate scale was selected according to the issue. Inter-sectoral co-operation has been fundamental to the whole project process, including its design.
Conclusions · Working at the ecosystem level and applying the Ecosystem Approach is a complex but productive process, although the level of complexity will depend on the size of the site.· Extensive communication between the various area sectors was a key component of the approach.
3. Sectors and Biomes
Sectors Aquaculture
Biomes Forest Biodiversity
Inland Waters Biodiversity
Marine and Coastal Biodiversity
4. Tools and Approaches
Tools and Approaches   Relevance
Public Participation 3-High
- Workshop based methods 3-High
- Community based methods 3-High
Education and Awareness 3-High
- Communication 3-High
- Education 3-High
Governance, Law and Policy 3-High
- Policy development, planning and reform 3-High
Data, Monitoring and Modelling 3-High
- Monitoring methods 3-High
Protected Areas and Land Use Policy 3-High
- Restoration 3-High
Cross-sectoral Research and Working 3-High
5. Issues
Issues   Relevance
Identification, Monitoring and Indicators 3-High
Public Participation 3-High
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity 3-High
6. Ecosystem Approach
Principles and Operational Guidance   Relevance
(Only if NOT relevant)
Principle 1: The objectives of management of land, water and living resources are a matter of societal choices 3-High
Principle 2: Management should be decentralized to the lowest appropriate level 3-High
Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems 3-High
Principle 4: Recognizing potential gains from management, there is usually a need to understand and manage the ecosystem in an economic context 3-High
Principle 5: Conservation of ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to maintain ecosystem services, should be a priority target of the ecosystem approach 3-High
Principle 6: Ecosystem must be managed within the limits of their functioning 3-High
Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales 3-High
Principle 8: Recognizing the varying temporal scales and lag-effects that characterize ecosystem processes, objectives for ecosystem management should be set for the long term 3-High
Principle 10: The ecosystem approach should seek the appropriate balance between, and integration of, conservation and use of biological diversity 3-High
Principle 11: The ecosystem approach should consider all forms of relevant information, including scientific and indigenous and local knowledge, innovations and practices 3-High
Principle 12: The ecosystem approach should involve all relevant sectors of society and scientific disciplines 3-High
Operational Guidance A: Focus on the relationships and processes within ecosystem 3-High
Operational Guidance B: Enhance benefit-sharing 3-High
Operational Guidance C: Use adaptive management practices 3-High
Operational Guidance D: Carry out management actions at the scale appropriate for the issue being addressed, with decentralization to lowest level, as appropriate 3-High
Operational Guidance E: Ensure intersectoral cooperation 3-High
7. Lessons Learned and the Outcomes
Lessons Learned · Working at the ecosystem level and applying the Ecosystem Approach is complex, yet productive, though it will depend on the size of the site.· A high level of communication between the different sectors of the area was identified as a key component of the approach.
Other Information
8. References
References R. D. Smith and E. Maltby. (2003). Using the Ecosystem Approach to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity: Key Issues and Case Studies. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x +118 pp.
9. Contact Details
Contact Person Ms Leah Mohammed
Job Title Intern
Organization CBD
Address Montreal World Trade Centre
393 Saint-Jaques, 8th floor
Postal Code H2Y 1N9
City Montreal
ZIP/State/Province Quebec
Country Canada
Telephone 514-288-2220
E-mail Address