Country Profiles

Finland - Country Profile

The national targets (or equivalent) presented in this database are taken from the NBSAPs received since COP-10, fifth national reports or from documents submitted separately. The mapping of national targets to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by the Party concerned is indicated in the last column “Related Aichi Target(s)”. All Parties are encouraged to undertake this mapping exercise and to submit this information to SCBD for incorporation in this database.

Reference Target Related Strategic Goals/Aichi Targets
Target 1 By 2020, Finnish people have at least a basic knowledge of biodiversity and are aware of its significance and their own opportunities to contribute to its conservation and sustainable use.
Target 2 By 2020, biodiversity values have been integrated. Alternative measures to GNP have been adopted to measure how well sustainable development objectives have been realised. The goal of conserving biodiversity has also been integrated into decision-making on plans, programmes and projects.
Target 3 By 2020, incentives and subsidies harmful to biodiversity have been identified and reformed, and economic controls related to biodiversity have been enhanced, taking into account national socioeconomic and cultural conditions.
Target 4 By 2020, administration, business, civil society and stakeholders at all levels promote and implement plans for sustainable production and consumption, and keep the impacts of natural resource use within safe ecological limits.
Target 5 By 2020, the loss of all natural habitats has been halted, and the degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats have been significantly reduced.
Target 6 By 2020, all aquatic biotic resources are managed and utilised sustainably, applying an ecosystem-based approach. The concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is applied in fisheries. Living natural resources are utilised within safe ecological limits. Fish stock management plans are drafted for all threatened fish populations and where necessary for commercially fished populations and groups of populations. Fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species or vulnerable ecosystems. Fish migration routes and spawning areas are safeguarded in waters of importance to migratory fish and commercially fished species. Depleted fish stocks are strengthened and native fish populations restored with the help of introductions.
Target 7 By 2020, areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed and utilised sustainably, ensuring the conservation of biodiversity.
Target 8 By 2020, environmental pollutants and their harmful emissions, including the excess nutrients that cause eutrophication, have been reduced to levels that are not detrimental to biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems.
Target 9 By 2020, invasive alien species and their pathways have been identified and prioritised, with the most harmful species brought under control. Pathways are monitored to prevent the introduction and establishment of invasive alien species in Finland.
Target 10 By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on threatened ecosystems impacted by climate change have been reduced so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.
Target 11 By 2020, Finland’s network of protected areas and the measures applied to conserve biodiversity in the use of other areas together cover at least 17 per cent of the terrestrial environments and inland waters of the country, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas. The functionality and coverage of the network have particularly been improved in Southern Finland. Protected areas are suitably managed and ecologically and regionally representative. They are well connected, and green infrastructure also connects them to wider landscape entities, with regard to the special features of heritage landscapes. Biodiversity also continues to be safeguarded in commercially managed forests.
Target 12 By 2020, the extinction of threatened species has been prevented in Finland and the conservation statuses of those most threatened have been improved, with declining trends halted.
Target 13 By 2020, the genetic biodiversity of Finland’s cultivated plants and their wild relatives, forest trees, fish stocks, and farmed and domesticated animals has been preserved and safeguarded.
Target 14 By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account socioeconomic and cultural considerations, notably the needs of the indigenous Sámi community.
Target 15 By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks have been enhanced through conservation and restoration. Finland participates in global efforts to restore at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. The impacts of the increased use of bioenergy on biodiversity and the nutrient and carbon cycles of forests have been assessed, and guidelines have been set to safeguard biodiversity. Urban biodiversity is enhanced through conservation measures, management measures and the provision of structures that promote biodiversity.
Target 16 By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilisation has been enforced and integrated into national legislation and administrative practices.
Target 17 By 2015, the implementation and impacts of the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Finland have been monitored for the purposes of an interim report produced in 2015. The strategy will be implemented and evaluated cost-effectively in collaboration with various businesses and other stakeholders.
Target 18 By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of the indigenous Sámi community relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, restored and conserved, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, by developing legislation and administrative procedures related to the protection of this traditional knowledge. Finland’s implementation of the CBD allows for the full and effective participation of the Sámi community at all relevant levels in line with decisions set out in the CBD and by COPs.
Target 19 By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends have been improved, and are widely utilised, applied and transferred to those needing such knowledge and technology. The impact assessment processes for plans and projects are open, participatory, and based on professionally conducted inventories whose quality is assured.
Target 20 By 2020, Finland assesses opportunities to increase the availability of financial, human and technical resources to facilitate the effective implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 as drawn up at CBD COP 10 and in line with decisions made at COP 11. Finland strives to obtain resources from all appropriate sources in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process defined in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization. National implementation depends on the availability of resources within spending limits set out in central government budget frameworks. This work will be steered in line with the needs assessments that are developed and reported by all Parties to the CBD.